Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid Axis (regulation, TRH, TSH, thyroid hormones T3 and T4)
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“The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis plays the major role in regulating thyroid hormone homeostasis in the body. The thyroid hormone are very important in fetal development and metabolism in adults. Important structures are the hypothalamus, pituitary gland specifically the anterior pituitary gland and the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck and wraps around the trachea just below the cricoid cartilage .
Here is a zoomed in structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis) is under the control of neurons located in the medial region of the PVN that synthesize and release thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) into the pituitary portal circulation. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is a tripeptide, stimulates the release of thyrotropin (TSH) from the anterior pituitary, which in turn stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.
Again thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis.
Reduction of circulating TH levels due to primary thyroid failure results in increased TRH and TSH production, whereas if there is high TH the opposite occurs, there will be low T3 and T 4.
The functional unit of the thyroid gland are the follicles made up of follicular cells. The centre of the follicle is the colloid. The thyroid gland has a rich blood supply. Here are capillaries. Next to the follicles are the parafollicular cells also known as C cells which produce calcitonin another hormone, which does not really have an important role in humans.”
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I can't win, my doctor tells me I got an overactive pituitary gland a underactive thyroid but my T cells are ok.. is it me or does this make no sense??? They won't explain nothing to me.. and when I sure this l thought this is great now I can find out what's going on.. wrong i actually need a medical degree to understand it.. this is mind blowing.. I have total respect for anyone who is in or studying in a medical field because you guys are amazing.. apart from my doctor. Well there's always one.. and I still don't know exactly what's wrong with you.. JUST ONE THING YOU SHOULD REPLY TO THESE GUYS QUESTIONS.. THEY ARE MEDICAL STUDENTS.. HELP THEM.. GOOD LUCK GUYS..X
So in a nutshell, The Hypothalamus senses that we are LOW on T3, T4 and, as all managers do- pass this message on to the next in charge- the pituitary. The title of the report is called, Thyroid Release (Hormone). They say you got that Pituitary? Pituitary says, uhhhhh no, but I know who to pass that one to. And it sends its own request to the Thyroid. Their report is titled Thyroid Stimulate (Hormone). The thyroid goes oh shoot, we are slacking and management found out. Start cranking out the T3 and T4!
Ergo LOW T3T4 means HIGH increase in reports sent, TRH and TSH 🙂
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a explicação parece muito boa, mas não entendo nada de Eng 🙁
Thank you so much, so my question is does T3/T4 control both TRH and TSH simultaneously OR does T3/T4 reset TRH and then TRH resets TSH…? Thanks in advance for any reply 🙂
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why I feel nausea when my tsh goes up above 3??? is it sth wrong with my brain????
Where do D1/D2 cells come into play? are they just the target cells
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